Department of Physics

B.Sc Physics Course Outcomes



Paper I


At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Know vectors, vectors products and application of vectors to linear and rotational quantities.

CO2:-Understand gravitational field, gravitational potential and Keplar’s law of planetary motion.

CO3:-Know the work energy theorem and law of conservation of total energy.

CO4:-Understand conservation of linear and angular momentum.

Paper II


At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain Coulomb law, Gauss theory and electric field, electric potential and electrostatic energy.

CO2:-Explain electric field and potential due to point and uniform charge distribution.

CO3:-Understand the electric field in matter.

CO4:-Understand the steady and varying electric currents, Kirchhoff’s law and their applications.

Paper III

Theory of Oscillation

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Impart knowledge about the simple harmonic motion and its applications in mechanical systems.

CO2:-Understand damping, power dissipation, relaxation time and quality factor during damped harmonic oscillation.

CO3:-Understand phenomenon of resonance, velocity resonance, sharpness of resonance and quality factor during forced harmonic oscillation.

CO4:-Explain applications of SHM in mechanical and electrical systems and Lissajous figures.


Paper I

General Properties of Matter

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand dynamics of rigid body and idea of moment of inertia.

CO2:-Explain moment of Inertia of various bodies, kinetic energy of rotating and rolling along a slope.

CO3:-Understand the basic concept of elasticity, elastic constants and their interrelations.

CO4:-Understand viscosity and surface tension of water and related laws and formulas.

Paper II


At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Know basic concept of magnetic field, we can explain Ampere’s law, Biot-Savert’s law and its applications in different cases.

CO2:-Understand the concepts of magnetic and magnetic properties of materials such as diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic.

CO3:-Explain the behavior of alternating currents in different electrical circuits.

CO4:-Understand the concepts of electromagnetic induction, self induction of solenoid and mutual induction of coaxial solenoid.

Paper III

Waves and Acoustics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain characteristics of wave motion and analyze the wave equation in different phenomenon.

CO2:-Understand about sound waves and ultrasonic waves.

CO3:-Understand characteristics and loudness of musical sound with acoustics and acoustic intensity.

CO4:-Explain the application of wave propagation in various physical cases, ultrasonic and acoustics of building and sonar system.


Paper I


At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1;-Understand basic concepts of thermodynamics, first law of thermodynamics and its applications.

CO2:-Explain condition of Reversibility, Carnot’s Engine, Carnot’s cycle, Carnot’s theorem and second law of thermodynamics.

CO3:-Understand entropy, entropy of an ideal gas, T-S diagram and its applications.

CO4:_Explain thermodynamics potential and derived Maxwell’s equation from thermodynamic potentials.

Paper II

Geometrical Optics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain Fermat’s principle of extremum path and its application to deduce laws of reflection and refraction at spherical surfaces.

CO2:-Understand general theory of image formation for lens systems.

CO3:-Know spherical, chromatic and monochromatic aberration and their reduction and theory of dispersion.

CO4:-Know about associated optical instruments such as nodal slide, eyepieces, telescope, microscope, spectrometer and its uses.

Paper III

Elementary Solid State Physics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Know basic concepts of various crystal structures.

CO2:-Understand reciprocal lattice, significance of Brillouin Zones and crystal diffraction methods.

CO3:-Explain the lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids.

CO4:-Understand the band theory of solids.


Paper I

Heat Transfer Mechanics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand Modes of heat transfer via Conduction, Convection and Radiation.

CO2:-Explain Kinetic theory of gases.

CO3:-Understand classical and quantum theory of thermal radiation.

CO4:-Explain methods of producing low temperature via various physical mechanisms.

Paper II

Physical Optics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain coherence condition, interference of light by division of wave front and amplitude and its applications.

CO2:-Understand diffraction of light and its applications.

CO3:-Understand polarization of light and its applications.

CO4:-Know about associated optical instruments and its applications.

Paper III

Statistical Physics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Know basic concepts about specification of states, phase space, μ space, entropy and thermodynamic probability etc.

CO2:-Understand various ensembles, their thermodynamic connection and physical significance of various statistical quantities.

CO3:-Explain Maxwell’s-Boltzmann statistics, distribution law and limitation of MB statistics.

CO4:-Explain Bose-Einstein statistics, Fermi-Dirac statistics and its application to liquid helium, free electron in metal and photon gas.



Paper I

Quantum Theory

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand the origin of quantum theory, Plank’s and black body radiation.

CO2:-Explain wave-particle duality, wave description of particles by wave packets and Heisenberg uncertainty principle etc.

CO3:-Understand postulates of quantum mechanics, operators and use of commutation and commutative algebra of operators to solve quantum mechanics problems.

CO4:-Explain time independent and time dependent one dimensional Schrodinger equations, physical interpretation of wave function. Ehrenfest’s theorem and idea of tunneling etc.

Paper II

Atomic and Molecular Physics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand various atomic models, space quantization and spinning of an electron.

CO2:-Explain optical spectra, LS and JJ coupling, fine structure of sodium D line, Zeeman effect and X-ray spectra.

CO3:_Explain theory of lasers and its applications.

CO4:-Understand rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules.


Paper III

Basic Electronics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain various network theorems and its applications.

CO2:-Understand power supplies such as rectifiers, filters and Zener diode and voltage regulations.

CO3:-Explain solid state devices-various types of diodes, transistor and field effect transistors.

CO4:-Understand classification of amplifier and their frequency response curve and bandwidth.



Paper I

Special Relativity and Electromagnetic Waves

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Explain postulates of special theory of relativity, Galilean and Lorentz transformations.

CO2:_Understand consequences of Lorentz transformations, mass-energy equivalence and concept of four-vectors.

CO3:_Explain Maxwell’s equation in differential and integral forms, Poynting theorem and wave equation in free space.

CO4:-Explain Maxwell’s equation in isotropic, non-isotropic and dielectric media, plane electromagnetic waves in dielectric media, reflection and refraction of EM waves.


Paper II

Subatomic Physics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand basic properties of nuclei, stability, binding energy, liquid drop model and semi-empirical mass formula.

CO2:-Explain properties of α, β and γ rays, Soddy Fajan’s displacement law, law of radioactive disintegration and carbon dating.

CO3:-Understand basic concepts and classification of elementary particles on the basis of mass, fundamental interaction, Lepton and baryon number, concepts of isospin and conservation laws.

CO4:_Understand various nuclear devices such as particle accelerators, particle detectors, ionization chamber and Geiger Muller counter. .


Paper III

Analog and Digital Electronics

At the end of this course, students will be able to

CO1:-Understand classification of feedback amplifier, negative and positive feedback and its advantages.

CO2:-Explain various types of oscillators.

CO3:-Understand conversion of one code to another, Boolean algebra and De-Morgan’s theorems.

CO4:-Explain various logic gates and universal gates and verify their truth tables.


UG Course Outcomes



Semester- I

Course Title: Elementary Algebra and Trigonometry

Paper- I

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: 1. Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

2. Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

3. Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Distinguish among different numbers and Identify the relation and mapping between different sets.

•Find the roots of the Equation.

•Know the concept of matrix and define different type of matrices.

•Understand different Trigonometrical functions and Trigonometric series and their applications.

Semester- I

Course Title: Differential Calculus

Paper- II

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: 1. Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

2. Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

3. Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Define limit, continuity and differentiability of a function and applications of mean value theorem.

•Find the successive differention and nth differential coefficient of function.

•Expand functions, identify indeterminate forms and solve it.

•Define tangent and normal and their application both in Cartesian and polar form

•Trace the curve and find singular points.

•Understand curvature and asymptotes and find them for a given curve.

Semester- I

Course Title: Geometry and Vector Analysis

Paper- III

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: 1. Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

2. Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

3. Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Find the polar equation of the conic.

•Understand vector algebra and apply it to geometry.


•Distinguish among different differential operators and understand the concept of vector differentiation.

•Understand the concept of vector Integration.


Semester- II

Course Title: Group Theory

Paper- I

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9412954452



After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Find the cardinality and congruency of the set.

•Define Group and Subgroup and create it.

•Understand the concept of homomorphism, isomorphism and automorphism.

•Understand the concept of Normaliser and center of group.


Semester- II

Course Title: Integral Calculus

Paper- II

Course Instructors: Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151152


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:


·Understand the concept of integral as a limit of sum and properties of definite integrals.

·Know the infinite integrals and differentiation and integration under the integral sign.

·Know about the Beta function. Gamma function, their properties, their relation and evaluation of them.

·Evaluate double integrals and repeated integrals.

·Understand the concept of change of order of integration and Drichlet`s Theorem.

·Know quadrature, rectification , volumes and surfaces of solids of revolution.


Semester- II

Course Title: Analytic Geometry

Paper- III

Course Instructors: Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

·Know about the system of coordinates, curvilinear coordinates;

·Know about definition and equation of sphere, power of a point, tangent plane and radical plane;

·Know about definition and equation of a cone, generators, tangent plane and reciprocal cone;


Semester- III

Course Title: Advanced Algebra

Paper- I

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9412954452


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Define Ring, Sub ring and their properties.

•Understand the concept of ideal and define different type of ideals.

•Define Integral domain,field and their properties.

•Explain the concept of polynomial rings and their properties.

•Explain the fundamental concepts of advanced algebra and their role in modern mathematics and applied contexts.


Semester- III

Course Title: Differential Equations

Paper- II

Course Instructors: Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:


•Understand the concept of order and degree, complete primitive and existence and uniqueness of the solution.

•To solve the differential equations of first order and first degree and the differential equations of first order but not of first degree.

•To understand the concept of trajectory, orthogonal trajectory, and self orthogonal family of curves.

•Find the solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients and homogeneous differential equations.

•Solve simultaneous, exact, total differential equations and linear differential equations of second order with variable coefficients.

•Solve a differential equation by series solution method and also learn about the simple application of differential equations.


Semester- III

Course Title: Mechanics

Paper- III

Course Instructors: Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

·Know about the rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion;

·Understand the concept of kinematics in two dimension, radial and transverse components of velocity;

·Understand the concept of motion in resisting medium, constrained motion, cycloidal motion;

·Know about the central orbits, pedal equation, apse and apsidal distance;

·Understand the concept of coplaner forces and equilibrium of forces in 3-D;

·Know about common catenary and virtual work.



Semester- IV

Course Title: Vector Spaces and Matrices

Paper- I

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9412954452


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Define Vector space, Sub space and their properties.

•Understand the concept of liner dependence and independence, bases and dimensions.

•Explain rank of a matrix and elementary transformation of a matrix.

•Application of matrices to find the solutions of system of linear homogenious equations and system of linear non- homogenious equations.


Semester- IV

Course Title: Real Analysis

Paper- II

Course Instructors: Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Understand the concept of continuity and differentiability of functions;

•Know about Riemann integral and mean value theorem of integral calculus;

•Identify the improper integral and test their convergence;

•Understand the concept of sequence and series, Cauchy`s convergence criterion;

•Know about uniform convergence, point wise convergence, test of uniform convergence.

•Know about definition and equation of a cylinder, right circular cylinder and enveloping cylinder;

•Understand the concept of conicoids, central conicoids and conjugate plane.


Semester- IV

Course Title: Mathematical Methods

Paper- III

Course Instructors: Dr. Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151152


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Define Kernel, Integral Transform and Laplace Transform;

•Develop Existence theorem, linearity property, Laplace transforms of elementary functions, derivatives, integrals and Periodic functions, Initial and Final- Value theorem;

•Find inverse Laplace Transforms using partial fractions and convolution;

•Solve differential and integro-differential equations using Laplace transforms;

•Evaluate Fourier Complex Transforms, Fourier sine and cosine transforms and Inverse Fourier transform;


Semester- V

Course Title: Linear Algebra

Paper- I

Status: Compulsory Course

Course Instructors: Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9412954452


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Explain the concept of linear transformation, rank, nullity and linear operators.

•Understand algebra of linear transformation.

•Find eigen value and eigen vector of different matrices and its application.

•Explain the concept of linear functionals, dual space and dual basis.

•Explain the fundamental concepts of different bilinear forms.


Semester- V

Course Title: Complex Analysis

Paper- II

Course Instructors: Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Understand the concept of complex variable, limit, continuity and differentiability;

•Know about analytic functions, Cauchy`s Riemann; equations, harmonic functions;

•Know about complex integration, Cauchy`s theorem, poles and singularities;

•Know about residues, the residues theorem, evaluation of improper real integral;

•Know about Liouville`s theorem, Taylor`s series and Laurent`s series.



Semester- V

Course Title: Functions of several variables and partial differential equations

Paper- III

Course Instructors: Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151152


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Understand the concept of limit, continuity and differentiability of functions of several variables.

•Geometrically interpret the partial derivatives and to find derivatives of composite and implicit functions.

•Know Euler`s theorem on homogeneous functions, jacobians, harmonic functions and Taylor`s expansion of several variables.

•Understand the concept of maxima and minima and can use Lagrange`s method of multipliers easily.

•Formulate and solve first order PDE by Charpit`s method.

•To classify second order PDE`s in two independent variables.

•To find general solution of higher order PDE`s with constant coefficients;


Semester- VI

Course Title: Numerical Methods

Paper- I

Internal Examiner: Dr Richa Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151152


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Find Absolute, Relative, Percentage and general errors involved in calculations;

•Solve Algebraic and transcendental equations by Bisection method, False position method, Newton- Raphson method, Picard`s iteration method;

•Check the consistency and inconsistency of system of linear equation;

•Find the solution of linear system of equations by direct and iterative methods;

•Find finite differences, differences of a polynomial and errors in polynomial interpolation;

•Apply Newton`s forward and Backward interpolation formula, Gauss, Stirling, Bessel`s, Everett`s and Lagrange`s interpolation formula;

•Numerically differentiate and numerically integrate a function by using a set of tabulated values of function;


Semester- VI

Course Title: Mathematical Statistics

Paper- II

Internal Examiner: Dr Deepak Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9411151706


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

·Know about descriptive statistics and exploratory data analysis, measures of central tendency;

·Understand the concept of correlation and regression, scatter diagram and rank correlation coefficient;

·Know about probability, random experiment, sample space, axiom of probability;

·Define the equally likely, mutually exclusive, independent and compound events;

·Know about conditional probability, mathematical expectation, Baye`s theorem.


Semester- VI

Course Title: Operations Research

Paper- III

Status: Compulsory Course

Internal Examiner: Dr Pramod Joshi, Assistant Professor

Dept. of Mathematics,

Mobile: 9412954452


After Successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

•Explain the basics ofOperations Research.

•Solve linear programming problem by different method like Graphical, Simplex and duality.

•Formulation of transportation problem.

•Finding initial basic feasible solution, test of optimality, degeneracy by MODI method and Stepping stone method.

•Find the solution of Assignment problems by Hungarian method.





L.S.M. Govt. P. G. College, Pithoragarh



Cos of the course ” Algae”


CO1. Describe about introductionand salient features of algae and theirplace among the organism.


CO 2. Classification ofalgae (Smith) up to class level.


CO 3. Describe range of vegetativestructure and Cell structure in algae.

CO 4. Describe various types of Reproduction andalternation of generation in algae.

CO 5. Describe the ecology of algae and its types.

CO 6. Describe the economic importance of algae as food,fodder, in agriculture, industry and public health.

CO 7. Describe Structure,reproduction and life cycles of the genera-

Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium, Chara,Vaucheria,Sargassum, Polysiphonia, Diatoms.



COs of the course ” Fungi”

CO1. Describe in detail the introduction, salient features and brief history of Fungi.

CO2. Classify fungi up to the class level


CO3. Describe and illustrate, somatic structure of fungi, nutritional and environmental needs of fungi.


CO4. Describe the ecological groups offungi.


CO5. Describe in detail the reproduction in fung, heterothallism ,heterokaryosis, a general idea of parasexualcycle.

CO6.Describe the Pathology of fungal plant diseases.

CO7. Describe the Importance of fungi-both beneficial and harmful.


CO8. Describe the life history of the genera in brief:Stemonitis, Synchytrium, Saprolegnia, Albugo,Rhizopus, Penicillium,Eryshiphe, Morchella, Ustilago, Puccinia, Agaricus, Alternari

COs of the course ” Bryophyta”



CO1. Describe Introduction, features, distribution,habitat andeconomicand ecologicalimportance of Bryophyta.


CO2. Describe alternation of generation in Bryophyta.


CO3. Classify Bryophyta upto order levelgiving the characteristic features of each class.

CO4. Comparative study of Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia, Anthoceros and Funaria on the basis of morphology and anatomy of gametophyte, vegetative, sexual reproduction and sporophyte.


COs of the course ” Microbiology-Bactria, Viruses and Lichens”



CO1.- Describe diversity of microbes.

CO2.- Describe general account of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance.

CO3.-Describe viruses: Characteristics, isolation and purification of viruses, chemical nature, replication, transmission of viruses, economic importance.

CO4.-DescribeLichens: Characteristics, general structure, reproduction, economic importance, symbiotic relationship and habitats.


COs of the course ” Pteridophyta”



CO1. Describe introduction and salient features of Pteridophytes and economic importance.


CO2. Describe alternation of generation in Pteridophyta.


CO3. Classify Pteridophytauptoorderlevel.

CO4.Comparative study of Rhynia, Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum, Adiantum on the basis of morphology and anatomyof vegetative plant body, spore producing organs and sexual reproduction.

CO5. Describe Stelar system, heterospory and seed habit.



COs of the course ” Gymnosperm and Paleobotany”


CO1.Describe introduction andsalient features of Gymnospermsand their placeamong the plant kingdom.



CO2. Classifygymnosperms upto order level.



CO3. Describe Alternation of generation in Gymnosperms.



CO4.Comparative study of Cycas, Pinus and Ephedra on the basis of morphology and anatomy of the vegetative plant body, sporophylls.


CO5. Describe Fossils, their types and process of fossilization, general idea about various geological erasand living fossils.



COs of the course ” Taxonomy of Angiosperm”


CO1. DescribeBasic principles and broad outline of the classification proposal by Bentham and Hooker and Hutchinson.

CO2.Describe InternationalCodeof Botanical Nomenclature.


CO3. Describe Botanical gardensand Herbaria.


CO4. Describe BotanicalSurvey of India.


CO5. Distinguishing features of the following families Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae,Apiaceae, Asteraceae,Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Orchidaceae, Liliaceae,Poaceae.


COs of the course ” Cytology”



O1. Describe Cell structure: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; ultrastructure of eukaryotic cell, cell wall and plasma membrane (ultrastructure, chemical composition and models of plasma membrane), cell connections

CO2.Describe structure andfunctions of cellorganelles:Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, Ribosome, Microbodies (Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Glyoxisomes); structure and function of Nucleus and Nucleolus

CO3. Describe cell division: cell cycle, process and significance of mitosis and meiosis, structure and function of synaptonemalcomplex andcrossing over

CO4.Describe eukaryotic chromosome: structure, chemical composition, Karyotype analysis,Ideogram; structure and functions of Polytene and Lampbrush chromosomes


COs of the course ” Embryology and Morphogenesis”


CO1. Describe the Structure of anther andpollen, microsporogenesis and male gametophyte.


CO2. Describe structureand types of ovules, megasporogenesis and female gametophyte.


CO3. Explain pollination mechanism, Fertilization, self incompatibility, doublefertilization.


CO4. Describe endosperm types, structure and functions; dicot and monocot embryo.


CO5. Describe general concept of morphogenesis.


CO6. Describe seed germinationand dormancy.


CO7. Describe elementary movements.


CO8. Describe a general account of Plant Growth Regulators.


CO9. Explain physiology of Flowering- Photoperiodism and Vernalization.




COs of the course “Genetics and Plant Breeding”


CO1.Describe structure andfunctionofnucleic acid and different forms ofDNA(A, B, Z).

CO2.Explain genetic code: properties of genetic code,classical and modern concept of gene.


CO3.Explain law of inheritance:Mendel’sexperiments,principleofsegregation, independent assortment, incomplete dominance.


CO4.Explain chromosomal aberration- structural(deficiency,duplication, inversion & translocation) and numerical (Euploidy & Aneuploidy), alteration in chromosomes.


CO5.Describe sex determination: sex chromosomes,sex determinationinDrosophila,Man and plants specially Melandrium;

CO6.Describe sex linked inheritance.


CO7. Describe plant breeding-aims and objectives, basic techniques of plant breeding (selection, plantintroduction and acclimatization, hybridization and mutational breeding),hybrid vigour.



COs of the course “Molecular Biology”



CO1.Explain DNA chemistry and DNA replication; replication error and repair mechanism.


CO2.Describe introns, exons, transposons, molecular basis of gene mutation.


CO3.Describe C-DNAand C-DNA library; Artificial gene synthesis


CO 4. Explain Molecular markers: A general idea of RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats).

CO5.Explain Polymerase chainreaction techniques(PCR). A brief idea of DNAfinger printing.



COs of the course “Plant Anatomy”


CO1. Describe about Meristematicand Permanent tissues:Root andShoot apical meristemsand their function; Simple, Complex and Specialtypes of tissues.

CO 2. Describe Epidermis and stomata


CO 3. Explain and perform anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf.


CO 4. Describe Root-stem transition


CO 5.Describe Secondary growth: vascular cambium, structure and function; seasonal activity (growth rings), secondary growth in root and stem; sap wood, heart wood, anomalous secondary growth in stems.



COs of the course “Economic Botany”


Describe and explain about the brief knowledge of Botany and commercial utilizationand uses of the following plants:


CO 1. Describe Cereals and millets- Wheat, Rice and Maize, Ragi, Pearl millet


CO 2. DescribeSugar yielding plants- Sugarcane and Sugar beet


CO 3. Describe Fruits- Mango,apple, banana, Citrus and Litchi.


CO 4. DescribeFibres- Cotton, jute, hemp,coir, Agave and Semal.


CO 5. Describe Vegetables- Root vegetables, stem vegetables and fruit vegetables.


CO 6. Describe Timbers- Teak, Shisham, Sal, Chirand Deodar.


CO 7. Describe Medicinal plants-Aconitum, Atropa, Cinchona,Rauwolfia, Ephedra and Withania.


CO 8. Describe Oils- Volatile and non-volatile oils.


CO 9. DescribeBeverages- Tea andcoffee.


CO 10. Describe Fumitories and masticatories.


CO 11. Describe Spicesand Condiments.




COs of the course “Plant Physiology”


CO 1. ExplainDiffusion, osmosis, waterpotentialand itscomponents, Plasmolysis,Imbibition and


Absorption of water, root pressure and guttation.


CO 2.Explain Transpiration and its significance, Factor affectingtranspiration, mechanism of stomatal opening and closing.

CO 3.Describe Mineral nutrition: Essential elements, macro and micro nutrients, criteria of essentiality of elements, role of essential elements, minerals deficiency symptoms, Transport of ions across cell membrane, active and passive transport, carriers, channels and pumps.

CO 4.Explain Translocation in phloem: composition of phloem sap, girdling experiment, pressure flow model, phloem loading and unloading

CO 5. Explain Respiration: aerobicand anaerobicrespiration.Glycolysis andKerb’scycle. Oxidative


phosphorylation, electron transportsystem, fermentation, R.Q.


CO 6. Describe and explain Photosynthesis: photosyntheticpigments. Photosystem I and II, electron transportsystem and ATP synthesis. Path of carbon in C3plants (C3cycle), Cplants (Ccycle), CAM pathway, photorespiration,





COs of the course “Biochemistry”


CO 1.Explain enzymes:Properties, classification, mechanism of enzymes action and factors affecting enzymesactivities

CO 2. Describe and explain amino acids and proteins: An elementary account with special reference to plants.


CO 3. Explain and describe Biological Nitrogen fixation and nitrate andammoniaassimilation.


CO 4. Explain carbohydrates: Structure and function.


CO 5. Describe elementary idea of fats and lipids in plants.




COs of the course “Plant Ecology”


CO 1. Describe plant and environment: Principles of environment, atmosphere, light, temperature, water, soil and biota.

CO 2. Describe morphological, anatomical and physiological responses of plantsto water (Hydrophytes and Xerophytes): temperature (thermoperiodism and vernalization): light (heliophytes and sciophytes).

CO 3. Explain population: Growth curves,ecotype and ecads.


CO 4. Explain definition of community; Structure and attributes of community: frequency, density, cover, lifeforms and biological spectrum; ecological succession.

CO 5. Describe ecosystem concept, energy flow, foodchain, food web andecological pyramids.


CO 6. Explain biogeochemical cycles with emphasis on carbon and nitrogen cycles.


CO 7. basic concept of Biodiversity and its conservation.


CO 8. Explain preliminary idea of environmental pollution-air, water, soil, noise and radioactive pollution.




COs of the course “Biostatistics”


CO 1. Explain introduction, definition, scope and importance of statistics,

CO 2. Describe sampling: aim, simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling.

CO 3. Explain measuresof central tendency, mean,medianand mode.


CO 4. Describe classification, tabulation and graphic presentation of data.


CO 5. Explain measuresof dispersion-range,variance, standard deviation, standard error.


CO 6. Explain correlation: correlation coefficient.


CO 7. Explain Chi-square (χ2) test


CO 8. Describe modern approach of statistical packages.

COs of the course “Biotechnology”
CO 1. Describe introduction to Biotechnology: Role in modern life, history and ethical issues connected with Biotechnology.

CO 2. Describe Genetic Engineering: Enzymes and vectorsinvolved in genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, toolsand techniques of genetic engineering.


CO 3.Explain plant tissue culture technique: Basic requirements of Tissue culture Laboratory, differenttypes of mediaandtheir composition, basic technique of tissue culture, types of culture on the basis of explants, collection and storage of germplasm (Cryopreservation), PTC with reference to somaclonal variations, syntheticseeds, somatic hybridization and hairy root culture.

CO 4. Describe IndustrialBiotechnology:With reference to drinks and beverages.


CO 5. Describe Agricultural Biotechnology: Crop (yield /quality) improvement, biofertilizersand biologicalcontrol.

CO 6. Explainbiotechnology with regard to microorganisms: Mycotoxin based health hazards and theircontrol, single cell protein.








CO1 Describe the salient features and outline classification (up to orders) of various Lower Non-chordate Phyla

CO2 Describe Protozoa with particular reference to locomotion, nutrition, osmoregulation and reproduction.

CO3 Describe taxonomy, morphology, life cycle, pathogenecity and control measures of different protozoan pathogens

CO4 Describe Porifera with reference to structure, reproduction and development, canal system, and affinities.

CO5 Describe Coelenterata with reference to structure, reproduction and development, polymorphism, including brief account of Corals and Coral reefs.

CO6 Describe taxonomy, morphology, life cycle, pathogenecity, control measures of Aschelminthes.

CO7 Describe parasitic adaptations in Helminths.

CO8 Describe Annelida with reference to external features, excretory organs and reproduction, parasitic adaptations, larval form/s, and metamerism.

CO9 Describe Arthropoda with reference to external features and reproduction.

CO10 Describe Mollusca with reference to external features, organs of pallial complex, reproduction, and torsion.

CO11 Describe Echinodermata with reference to external features, water vascular system, mode of feeding and reproduction.

CO12 Give background knowledge of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

CO13 Describe ultrastructure, chemical composition, models, specialisations and functions of plasma membrane.

CO14 Describe structure and functions of different cell organelles

CO15 Describe Cell cycle- Mitosis and meiosis

CO16 Give a background idea of cell transformation and cancer

CO17 Describe eukaryotic chromosomes

CO18 Describe dosage compensation in Drosophila and man.



CO19 Give a brief description of Amoeba, paramecium, Euglena, Hydra, and rectal ciliates

CO20 Describe nervous-system or General anatomy of selected animals with the help of charts and models

CO21 Study of permanent slides and museum specimens belonging to different phyla

CO22 Describe life cycle of few selected helminths

CO24 Describe mitosis and meiosis






CO1 Describe biochemistry of nucleic acids, identification of DNA as genetic material

CO2 Describe genetic code and protein synthesis

CO3 Give background knowledge of recombinant DNA technology and its scope

CO4 Give brief knowledge of PCR and its significance

CO5 Describe working principles and application of the instruments used in biotechnology

CO6 Describe taxonomy and systematics, their relationship and significance

CO7 Describe species concept and back ground knowledge of taxonomic methodology

CO8 Give an account of concepts and evidences of evolution

CO9 Describe evolutionary theories

CO10 Describe evolution of man

CO11 Give an elementary knowledge of fossils

CO12 Describe geological time scale

CO13 Describe Mendelian inheritance/genetics

CO14 Describe Linkage

CO15 Describe Crossing over-mechanism and significance

CO16 Give an account of Determination of sex

CO17 Describe Sex linked inheritance

CO18 Describe Mutation



CO19 Describe working principles and applications of the instruments used in biotechnology

CO20 (i) Conduct experiments on Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, and describe mutants of Drosophila.

CO21 Describe Biological Techniques

CO22 Describe Animal collection techniques/equipments used

CO23 Describe evolution of man with the help of Model/chart.

CO24 Give a description of Palaeontology.






CO1 Describe salient features and an outline classification of lower chordate

CO2 Describe salient features of body organisation and systematic position and affinities of Type protochordates.

CO3 Give an account of Agnatha

CO4 Describe scales and fins, Parental care in fishes

CO5 Give an account of the general Characters and affinities of Gymnophiona.

CO6 Describe parental care in Amphibia

CO7 Describe salient features and an outline classification of higher chordate

CO8 Give an account of Reptilia

CO9 Give an account of Aves

CO10 Give an account of Mammalia

CO11 Describe adaptive radiation in mammalia

CO12 Define ecology and its scope

CO13 Describe abiotic and biotic environment

CO14 Define concept of ecosystem

CO15 Describe energy flow in ecosystem

CO16 Define laws of limiting factors

CO17 Describe concept of Biosphere and its components

CO18 Describe biogeochemical cycles

CO19 Describe Population ecology

CO20 Give an account of biotic interactions

CO21 Describe biodiversity conservation

CO22 Give brief background of the concept of protected areas

CO23 Describe India’s wild life habitats and resources

CO24 Describe adaptations in animals to desert and aquatic life

CO25 Define pollution and its control

CO26 Give a description of global environmental problems

CO27 Define pesticide pollution and control of various pollutants



CO28 Study of permanent slides and specimens across different phyla

CO29 Dissection, general anatomy and preparation of slides of scales of fishes

CO30 Back ground knowledge of skeleton/bones of frog, Varanus, fowl and rabbit

CO31 Conduct ecological experiments

CO32 Describe adaptations in animals

CO33 Wildlife in India

CO34 Describe indicator species of different kinds of water pollution.






CO1 Describe Gametogenesis

CO2 Describe types of eggs.

CO3 Describe fertilization

CO4 Describe cleavage

CO5 Describe blastulation and Gastrulation

CO6 Describe fate maps

CO7 Describe foetal membranes

CO8 Define retrogressive metamorphosis

CO9 Describe regeneration

CO10 Describe embryonic Induction

CO11 Describe bionomics and control measures of the common pests

CO13 Give an account of polyphagous insects

CO14 Describe pest management

CO15 Give an account of insects up to orders

CO16 Describe methods of insect collection and preservation

CO17 Describe parental care and social life in insects

CO18 Classify fishes up to orders

CO19 Describe integrated fish farming

CO20 Describe construction of aquaria and its maintenance

CO21 Describe ornamental fishes

CO22 Define induced breeding

CO23 Describe indigenous and exotic fishes

CO24 Describe migration in fishes



CO25 Study of the permanent slides of the chick and frog embryos

CO26 Study of the slides and specimens of type species of economic significance

CO27 Description of life cycles and control measures of insects of economic importance

CO28 Describe structural organization of Bee hive

CO29 Give brief description of commercially important varieties of poultry and cattle

CO30 Describe salient features and outline classification of various insect groups



i. Theory period of duration of 45 minutes for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 4 and ½ hours per week.

ii. Practical classes is held for a duration of 1 and ½ hour per week, on account of huge number of students, and hence dividing the lot into 6 separate batches remains obligatory







CO1 Give an account of the biological molecules and enzymes

CO2 Describe carbohydrate metabolism

CO3 Describe digestion ofcarbohydrate, fat and protein

CO4 Describe respiration

CO5 Describe excretion

CO6 Describe blood vascular system

CO7 Give a brief account of immune system

CO8 Describe physiology of heart

CO9 Describe nervous system

CO10 Describe physiology of muscles

CO11 Give a brief account of general characteristics of endocrine system

CO12 Describe mechanisms of hormone action

CO13 Give a brief background of the major endocrine glands and associated disorders

CO14 Bacteria of medical importance

CO15 Give brief account of Mycoplasma and AIDS

CO16 Describe environmental use of microorganisms

CO17 Give an account of food and dairy microbiology

CO18 Describe application of major biological techniques

CO19 Describe patterns of animal behaviour

CO20 Describe biological clocks, bird migration and socio-biology

CO21 Describe principles of toxicology

CO22 Define environmental toxicology

CO23 Describe metabolism of toxic substances

CO24 Define dose response relationship

CO25 Describe analytical toxicology

CO26 Describe structure of some of the major tissues and organs

CO27 Give a basic account of computer and its organisation

CO28 A basic idea of software, hardware and programming languages

CO29 Describeuses of computers in biological sciences

CO30 How do you conduct data collection, tabulation and its presentation

CO31 Describe concepts of mean, mode, median and of standard deviation and standard error



CO32. Experiments in physiology

CO33 Identification of the histology slides

CO34 Preparation of smooth and striped muscles:

CO35 Exercise in toxicology

CO36 Exercise in animal behaviour

C037 study of the principles and application of the biotech equipment with the help of photographs:

CO38 Problems in biostatistics

CO39 Experiments in microbiology



i. Theory period of duration of 45 minutes for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 4 and ½ hours per week.

ii. Practical classes is held for a duration of 1 and ½ hour per week, on account of huge number of students, and hence dividing the lot into 6 separate batches remains obligatory






CO1 A basic understanding of Microbiology

CO2 Describe kinds of Microorganisms

CO3 Describe microorganisms in their natural habitat

CO4 Describe microbial morphology and physiology

CO5 Describe microbial media & culture techniques

CO6 Describe microbial Growth and factors affecting the growth

CO7 Describe viruses- Structure and composition, classification, physical properties, etc

CO8 Describe microbiology of water

CO9 Describe microbiology of soil

CO10 Describe microbiology of air

CO11 Describe microbiology of food

CO12 Give an account of antibiotics

CO13 Describe microbial diseases and disease reservoirs

CO14 Describe Biohydrometallurgy

CO15 Give an account of habit and habitats, characters of Non-Chordate Phyla

CO16 Describe nutrition, locomotion, reproduction in protozoa

CO17 Describe canal system, reproduction and phylogeny in porifera

CO18 Describe polymorphism, Corals and coral reefs in Coelenterata

CO19 Describe life-cycle and parasitic adaptations in Helminths

CO20 Describe organization and affinities in minor phyla

CO21 Describe segmental Organs and adaptive radiations in annelids

CO22 Describe larval forms, mouth parts and social-life in arthropods

CO23 Describe organization and affinities of Onychophora

CO24 Describe major features of respiratory and reproductive systems in Mollusca

CO25 Describe water Vascular System and larval forms in echinoderms

CO26 Describe relevance and scope of ecology

CO27 Describe physical and biotic environment

CO28 Describe ecosystem diversity and services

CO29 Define concept of habitat and niche

CO30 Describe ecosystem’s structure and function

CO31 Define limiting factors: Laws and brief description of abiotic factors as limiting factors

CO32 Describe population ecology

CO33 Describe community ecology

CO34 Describe ecological succession and types

CO35 Describe stressed ecosystems: Point and non-point sources of pollution

CO36 Describe assessment of freshwater pollution using various parameters

CO37 Describe water quality monitoring using abiotic factors, bio monitoring

CO38 Describe environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

CO39 Define eutrophication

CO40 Describe few of the global Environmental Problems

CO41 Define biodiversity, biodiversity conservation and management

CO42 Give an account of modern approaches in taxonomy

CO43 Describe concepts of zoological classification

CO44 Give an account of the taxonomic Aids

CO45 Define species concept

CO46 Describe rules of Zoological Nomenclature

CO47 Describe collection, Preservation and Identification of insects

CO48 Define Modern synthetic theory

CO49 Describe Variations and its kinds

CO50 Describe speciation

CO51 Describe basic Patterns of Evolution

CO52 Define Mimicry and its types

CO53 Describe structure and organization of genome

CO54 Structure of nucleic acids and its replication

CO55 Describe DNA repair and genetic disease in humans

CO56 Describe organization of typical eukaryotic gene

CO57 Describe Gene regulation and expression

CO58 Describe mutation and its types

CO59 Describe prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription and translation

CO60 Describe genetic code



CO61 Study of permanent prepared slides of different Phyla

CO62 Study of the museum specimens belonging to the different invertebrate Phyla

CO63 Permanent preparations of the material available/provided

CO64 Experiments in Ecology

CO65 Experiments in Microbiology

CO66 Studies of type specimens (parasites)

CO67 Evolutionary Biology and Systematics



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 1 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 9 hours per week.






CO1 Describe diversity of cell size, type, shape and cell theory

CO2 Describe structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

CO3 Describe cellular organelles

CO4 Describe organization of cytoskeleton, microtubules, etc

CO5 Describe molecular aspects of cell division and regulation

CO6 Describe structure and organisation of membranes

CO7 Describe cellular communication

CO8 Describe cellular responses to environmental signals in bacteria and animals

CO9 Describe biology of cancer

CO10 Describe chromosomal analysis and techniques

CO11 Describe structure, chemical composition, classification, and models of chromosomes

CO12 Describe giant chromosomes

CO13 Describe chromosome mapping

CO14 Define concept of gene

CO15 Describe Mendelian genetics and principles

CO16 Describe extra chromosomal inheritance

CO17 Describe Plasmids, IS Elements, Transposons and Retro-elements

CO18 Describe chemical nature, classification and mode of secretion of hormones

CO19 Describe mechanisms of hormone action

CO20 Describe structure and physiology of mammalian endocrine glands and their associated disorders

CO21 Describe reproductive endocrinology

CO22 Give a background of bioenergetics

CO23 Describe classification, chemical structure, and sources of biochemically significant carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

CO24 Describe nomenclature, classification, mechanism of action of enzymes

CO25 Describe metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

CO26 Give an account of the integration of metabolism and concept of metabolic regulations

CO27 Give an account of the metabolic disorders

CO28 Describe vitamins and minerals

CO29 Describe basic concept of xenobiotic compounds and their metabolism

CO30 Give an account of nutrition, respiration and blood circulation

CO31 Describe muscle physiology

CO32 Describe thermoregulation

CO33 Describe excretion and osmoregulation

CO34 Describe sensory physiology

CO35 Give an account of the nervous Coordination

CO36 Describe immune System



CO37 Experiments on Physiology and Bio-chemistry

CO38 Cytological experiments

CO39 Exercises in genetics

CO40 Studies in endocrinology



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 1 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 9 hours per week.






CO1 Classify up to orders, habit and habitats and characters of Chordates

CO2 Describe characteristic features and development of Urochordata, Cephalochordata

CO3 Describe affinities of Hemichordata, Urochordata, Cephalochordata

CO4 Describe characters and affinities of Cyclostomata

CO5 Describe salient features of different groups of Fishes

CO6 Describe origin of Amphibians and parental care in Amphibians

CO7 Describe origin of Reptiles and general organization, distribution and affinities

CO8 Describe origin of Birds- Origin and mechanism of flight in birds, modifications in body parts

CO9 Describe origin of Mammals- General characters, distribution and affinities of Prototheria

CO10 Describe Metatheria, Dentition and adaptive radiations in mammals

CO11 Describe aquatic and flying adaptations in mammals

CO12 Describe approaches to the study of animal behaviour

CO13 Describe fixed Action Pattern (FAP) or Instinctive Behaviour

CO14 Define Learned Behaviour or Acquired Behaviour

CO15 Define Memory: Nature and types of Memory

CO16 Describe Individual Behaviour

CO17 Describe feeding Strategies

CO18 Describe social Behaviour in animals

CO19 Describe communication and its types

C020 Describe migratory behaviour in birds and fishes

CO21 Define biological Rhythm

CO22 Describe fertilization

CO23 Describe Cleavage and Blastulation

CO24 Describe Gastrulation and Fate maps

CO25 Describe development and functions of the foetal membranes in mammals

CO26 Describe organogenesis of brain, eye and heart in chick

CO27 Define organizer Concept

CO28 Describe regeneration and Metaplasia

CO29 Describe metamorphosis

CO30 Describe teratogenesis

CO31 Define theories of Ageing

CO32 Describe origin, definition, scope and importance of biotechnology

CO33 Define Gene therapy, Gene Delivery methods and Transplantation biology

CO34 Describe stem cell cultures and their potential use

CO35 Genetic engineering in animals and Social issues of transgenics & IPR

CO36 Describe ethical issues against the molecular technologies

CO37 Define Intellectual Property Rights

CO38 Define Bioremediation

CO39 Give an account of Bioreactor

CO40 Principles and techniques of Microscopy, centrifugation,Organellar separation and Flow Cytometry

CO41 Describe principle & applications of different equipments

CO42 Describe different Chromatographic techniques

CO43 Give a background account of electrophoresis, PCR & Thermal cyclers, autoradiography, ELISA

CO44 Introductory knowledge of computers and Bioinformatics

CO45 Give an account of E. coli, D. melanogaster, Human genome, Mice genome. DNA Chips and their replications

CO46 Describe Biostatistics



CO47 Microtomy of vertebrate tissues

CO48 Study of the skeleton of Frog, Varanus, Snake and Rabbit

CO49 Study of permanent slides of Protochordata and Chordates

CO50 Study of the museum specimens of Protochordata

CO51 Exercises on Developmental Biology

CO52 Study of development of frog, chick through models/charts

CO53 Study of chick embryos

CO54 Instrumentation

CO55 Exercise in biostatistics



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 1 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 9 hours per week.






CO1 Describe classification of fishes

CO2 Describe fins, their origin and evolution

CO3 Describe locomotion in fishes

CO4 Describe histomorphologyand elementary physiology of digestive system and excretory system

CO5 Describe electric organs in fishes

CO6 Describe accessory respiratory organs in fishes

CO7 Describe sense organs in fishes

CO8 Describe sexual dimorphism and courtship in fishes

CO9 Describe reproduction in a major carps

CO10 Describe parental care in fishes

CO11 Describe microscopic structure and hormonal functions of the endocrine glands

CO12 Describe migratory instincts

CO13 Describe Hill stream adaptations

CO14 Give an account of the venomous and non-venomous fishes

CO15 Describe Fish pheromones and coloration in fishes

CO16 Give an account of the marine, estuarine and inland capture fisheries of India and methods of fishing

CO17 Describe nutrition and growth in fishes

CO18 Describe preservation, ecology and productivity of fishes

CO19 Describe carp culture and management practices

CO20 Describe integrated aquaculture

CO21 Describe induced spawning and hybridization

CO22 Describe Larvivorus fishes and public health

CO23 Describe fish diseases and their management

CO24 Describe exotic fishes and their merits and demerits

CO25 Describe cryopreservationof gametes and embryos

CO26 Give an account of ornamental fish culture



CO27 Detailed study of the skeleton of a Cyprinoid and a Siluroid fish

CO28 Permanent preparation of scales, sensory, ampullae, etc.

CO29 Taxonomic studies of fresh water fishes

CO30 Experiments in ecology

CO31 Determination of age with the help of scales

CO32 Calculation of Gonado-Somatic Index and Gastro-Somatic Index

CO33 Determination of fish fecundity

CO34 Extraction of Pituitary gland

CO35 Sham injection of Pituitary gland extract

CO36 Analysis of gut content

CO37 Study of length-weight relationship

CO38 Exercises on Fish habitat Ecology

CO39 Exercises on Fisheries Biology



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 2 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 15 hours per week.






CO1 Describe ancestry and evolution of insects

CO2 Describe classification of insects

CO3 Describe methods of collection, preservation and culture of insects

CO4 Describe parental care in insects

CO5 Give an account of the habit, habitats and general characters of the different orders in insects

CO6 Describe principles and Practices of Pest Control

CO7 Define Pests and different categories of crop pests

CO8 Describe pest control procedures

CO9 Describe modes of action of insecticides

CO10 Describe integrated Pest Management (IPM)

CO11 Give an account of the Insecticide Application Equipments

CO12 Describe distribution, habit and habitats, life-cycle, nature of damage and control of pests of crops, vegetables, fruits and forests

CO13 Give an account of the Lac Industry, apiculture, and sericulture

CO14 Describe life-cycle and control of insects of Medical Importance

CO15 Describe Insect integument: Structure, functions and modifications

CO16 Describe structure of an insect head, thorax and abdomen

CO17 Describe structure and types of wings of an insect

CO18 Describe structure and modifications of male and female genitalia in insects

CO19 Describe structure and modifications of alimentary canal

CO20 Describe structure and functions of blood and mode of circulation in insects

CO21 Describe principal organs of excretion of insects

CO22 Describe structure and modes of functioning of various types of respiratory organs

CO23 Describe nervous system in insects and its modifications

CO24 Describe neuroendocrine system in insects

CO25 Describe structure and functions of different types of visual and sound producing organs in insects

CO26 Describe Bioluminescence

CO27 Describe structure of pheromone producing glands

CO28 Describe structure and modification of male and female reproductive systems

CO29 Describe developmental of major organs in insects



CO30 Study of models on dissection of nervous system of insects

CO31 Permanent preparation of sting apparatus of select species

CO32 Counting of haemocytes in insects

CO33 Modifications of insect heads on the basis of their orientation

CO34 Identification of insects up to family of the orders prescribed in theory

CO35 Study of the different types of adaptations found in insects

CO36 Determination of pH of the gut contents

CO37 Microtomy of insect tissues

CO38 Pests of fruits, vegetables & stored grains

CO39 Study of the structure of bee-hive

CO40 Bioassay studies on insects using some contact poisons

CO41 Use of dichotomous key in the identification of insects

CO42 Study of the life-cycles of some important insect pests

CO43 Determination of Shannon-Weiner diversity index from given data

CO44 Estimation of secondary productivity from the given data using Wiegert‟s (1965) expressions

CO45 Exercises on insect behaviour



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 2 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 15 hours per week.






CO1 Give a historical background of science of immunology

CO2 Describe cells and Organs of Immune system

CO3 Describe major contribution of the scientists related to immunology

CO4 Describe hematopoiesis

CO5 Describe primary lymphoid organs and their functional role

CO6 Describe secondary lymphoid organs and its functional role

CO7 Describe antigen

CO8 Describe Immunogen and its properties

CO9 Describe Antigenecity and immunogenicity and factors affecting it

CO10 Describe basic structure and classes of immunoglobulin

CO11 Describe Major Histocompatibility Complex [MHC]

CO12 Describe regulation of MHC expression

CO13 Describe production and mechanism of Monoclonal antibodies

CO14 Describe primary and secondary line of Defence

CO15 Describe antigen-Antibody interactions

CO16 Describe antigen processing and presentation

CO17 Describe acquired immunity

CO18 Describe interaction of Antigen-Antibody

CO19 Describe immune effector mechanism

CO20 Define allergy and Hypersensitivity

CO21 Describe cytokine secretion and its function

CO22 Describe Complement system

CO23 Describe complement deficiencies and hypersensitivity

CO24 Describe Immune response to infectious diseases

CO25 Describe diseases of immune system and vaccines

CO26 Describe production of monoclonal antibodies and its mechanism

CO27 Give an account of Immunotechnology and allergy evaluation

CO28 Describe transplantation immunology



CO29 Cell viability test using chicken or got spleenocyte

CO30 Determination of ABO blood group

CO31 Ouchterloney’s didiffusion immunoassay

CO32 Study of primary and secondary lymphoid organs

CO33 Use of flowcytometry to separate specific immune cells

CO34 Immunoprecipitation

CO35 Performance of ELISA test

CO36 Immunohistochemistry

CO37 Western blotting



i. Theory periods for duration of minimum of 3 hours for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 18 hours per week.

ii. Practical classes are held for duration of 2 and ½ hour daily for 6 days a week, i.e. a total of 15 hours per week.

Department of Geology, L.S.M.G.P.G. College, Pithoragarh; Data for NAAC- Criteria 2

Bechalor of Sciences (BSc)

Course Outcome (COs)


Physical Geology

1.Get introduced to geology and its scope

2.Understand the position of Earth in space and solar system and various theories of its origin.

3.Describe the internal and external processes of the Earth and write down its shape, size, mass, density and its atmosphere.

4.Understand the laws of uniformitarinism, Earthquakes, Volcanism, Weathering and erosion and related effects


Cos of Structural Geology

1.Get introduced to Structural Geology

2.Understand contours, topographic and geological maps

3.Get an elementary idea of bed, dip and strike, outcrop, effects of various structures on outcrop

4.Learn the use of Clinometer/Brunton compass.

5.Get an elementary idea of types of deformation; Folds: nomenclature and types of folds; Faults: nomenclature, geometrical and genetic classifications, normal, thrust and slip faults; joints, cleavage, lineation and unconformity along with their definition, measurement and significance.


Cos of Crystallography

1.Understand and describe various crystals and their characters.

2.Describe various crystals with their form, face, edge, solid angle; Interfacial angle and their measurements; Crystallographic axes and angles.

3.Understand Twinning and their types.

4.Describe the Crystal parameters, Weiss and Miller system of notations. Symmetry elements and description of normal class of Isometric, Tetragonal, Hexagonal, Trigonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic and Triclinic systems.


Cos of Mineralogy

1. Write and observe the physical properties of minerals

2. Describe and understand Isomorphism and Polymorphism

3. Understand the concept of silicon tetrahedron and classification of silicates

4. Describe and understand the chemical composition and diagnostic physical properties of minerals such as: Quartz, Orthoclase, Microcline, Hypersthene, Hornblende, Garnet, Muscovite, Biotite, Olivine


Cos of Optical Mineralogy

1. Understand ordinary and plane polarized light; Isotropism and Anisotropism;

2. Understand the parts and functioning of Polarizing microscope;

3. Describe the common optical properties observed under ordinary, polarized lights and between crossed nicols.

4. Understand the Optical properties of some common rock forming minerals (Quartz, Orthoclase, Microcline, Hypersthene, Olivine, Hornblende, Muscovite, Biotite, Garnet).


Cos of Elementary Geochemistry

1.Understand the properties of elements, chemical bonding, states of matter and atomic environment of Elements

2.Understand the geochemical classification of elements, the composition of different Earths’ reservoirs.

3.Understand Elemental fractionation, transport, advection, diffusion.

4.Understand the geochemical variability of magma, melting of the mantle and growth of continental crust within the solid Earth.

5.Understand the position of Earth in the solar system, the formation of solar system, composition of the bulk silicate Earth and Meteorites.

6.Understand the geochemical behavior of selected elements like Si, Al, K, Na etc. during weathering of rocks.


Cos of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

1.Describe Magma: definition, composition, types and origin; Forms and textures of igneous rocks

2.Reaction principle; Differentiation and Assimilation; Crystallization of unicomponent and bicomponent (mix-crystals); Bowen’s reaction series. Mineralogical and chemical classification of igneous rocks. Detailed petrographic description of Granite, Granodiorite, Rhyolite, Syenite, Phonolite, Diorite, Gabbro. Process and products of. metamorphism; Type of metamorphism. Factors, zones and grade of metamorphism; Textures, structures and classification of metamorphic rocks. Petrographic details of some important metamorphic rocks such as – slate, schists, gneiss, quartzite, marble.


Sedimentary Petrology

1. Understand various processes of formation of sedimentary rocks.

2. Understand and describe Clastic and nonclastic sedimentary rocks, their textures and structures of sedimentary rocks.

3. Understand Palaeocurrent and sediment dispersal

4. Understand the concept of provenance and basins.

5. Obtain elementary knowledge about continental and oceanic sedimentary basins.

6. Understand the concept of sedimentary environments and facies.

7. Describe the petrographic details of important siliciclastic and carbonate rocks such as – conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, greywacke, shale, limestones.


Cos of Ground Water Hydrology

1. Understand ground water hydrology, hydrological cycle; hydrological parameters – Precipitation, evaporation, transpiration and infiltration.

2. Understand the origin of groundwater; its vertical distribution.

3. Understand about various types of aquifers including unconfined and confined aquifers.

4. Understand the water bearing properties of rocks – Porosity and Permeability; specific yield, specific retention.

5. Describe the Groundwater provinces of India.


Cos of Straigraphy

1.Understand and describe the definition and principles of stratigraphy

2.Describe the Geological Time Scale and stratigraphic classification

3.Understand the Physiographic division of India

4.Study of following Precambrian succession: Dharwar, Cuddapha, Vindhyan and Delhi Supergroup;

5.Obtain a brief idea of Palaeozoic succession of northwestern Himalaya; Triassic of Spiti; Mesozoic type seccession of Kutch and Rajasthan; Cretaceous of Tiruchirapalli;

6.Study of following type localities: Gondwana and Deccan Trap. Palaeogene-Neogene sequences of northwest Himalaya and Assam.


Cos of Paleontology

1.Understand the definition of Palaeontology and Fossils.

2.Describe the characters, binomial nomenclature in taxonomy, mode of preservation, condition of fossilization and significance of fossils.

3.Understand the morphology and geological distribution of gastropods, brachiopods, palecypods and cephalopods.

4.Describe the morphology and geological distribution of trilobite, echinoidea. Understand the evolutionary history of horse along with its morphology

5.Describe the distribution and significance of Gondwana flora.


Cos of Elementary Oceanography

1.Understand the relief of ocean floor which includes Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, Continental Rise, Abyssal Plain and associated features

2.Understand the density and salinity of sea water.

3.Understand and describe the marine sediments and their classification (Lithogenous, Biogenous, Hydrogenous, Cosmogenous).

4.Understand the sea floor mineral resources, Submarine canyons.

5.Describe and understand the marine microfossils and their geological and economic significance.

6.Understand Coastal Geology: Coastal landforms-dunes, Spits and bars, estuaries, lagoons, deltas; Coral reefs and atolls, Coastal resources


Cos of Economic Geology

1.Understand the concepts of ores and ore deposits, ore minerals and gangue minerals; Tenor of ores;

2. Describe the Metallic and non-metallic ore minerals; Strategic, Critical and essential minerals.

3. Understand the processes of formation of ore deposits: Magmatic, contact metasomatic, hydrothermal, sedimentation

4. Study important metallic (Cu, Pb, Zn Mn, Fe, Au, Al) and non-metallic (industrial) minerals (gypsum, magnesite, mica)

5. Describe the distribution of coal and petroleum in India.

6. Obtain elementary idea of mineral exploration including geological and geophysical prospecting and mining


Cos of Fuel Geology

1.Understand the definition and origin of Coal; its basic classification

2. Obtain brief idea about lithotypes, microlithotypes and macerals in coal;

3. Understand underground coal gasification

4. Understand Petroleum, its origin and use as fuel;

5. Understand the chemical composition and physical properties of crudes

6. Understand and describe maturation of kerogen; Biogenic and Thermal effect;

7. Understand about Petroleum reservoirs and Traps; Reservoir rocks:

8. Obtain brief idea on Hydrocarbon traps: definition; anticlinal theory and trap theory; Classifiy of hydrocarbon traps – structural, stratigraphic and combination and understand the time of trap formation and time of hydrocarbon accumulation;

9. Define Cap rocks and their general properties;

10. Understand the relationship of plate tectonics and global distribution of hydrocarbon reserves.

11. Obtain Elementary knowledge of Nuclear Fuel


Cos of Elementary Engineering Geology

1. Understand the Engineering properties of rocks and Soils.

2. Describe soil and soil groups of India

3. Understand dams, their types and related geological and environmental considerations.

4. Understand geological problems of reservoirs.

5. Understand geotechnical aspects of tunnels, bridges and hill roads.

6. Understand the geotechnical aspects of tunnels, bridges and hill roads.


Cos of Photogeology

1.Define and understand the scope of photogeology.

2.Understand EM radiation and EM spectrum. EM energy interactions with atmosphere and earth surface features.

3.Obtain knowledge on film and digital aerial photography.

4.Understand about types of aerial photographs and their annotations on aerial photographs and their scale.

5.Understand relief distortions and vertical exaggeration and Orthophotographs; Tilt in aerial photographs.

6.Understand the aerial photography mission.

7. Understand Stereoscopic vision in aerial photographs; Stereoscopes and their types. Understand Phototechnical and geotechnical elements of photo-interpretation.

8. Obtain knowledge on aerial photo mosaics, their types and utility.

9. Understand the application potential of aerial photographs in land cover, landform, rock type and structure recognition.


Cos of Elements of Mineral Exploration

1.Understand Mineral exploration: Surface and sub surface exploration methods including use of remote sensing techniques;

2.Understand Prospecting for economic minerals: drilling sampling and assaying;

3.Obtain elementary knowledge of geological and geophysical prospecting.

4.Learn about various methods of exploration that include Gravity, electrical, magnetic,airborne and seismic methods, geobotanical and geochemical methods.

5.Obtain elementary idea of mining and environmental considerations.


Cos of Environmental Geology

1.Understand the scope and aims of environmental geology.

2.Understand the relationship between biosphere and man.

3.Obtain knowledge on natural hazards namely Earthquakes, volcanism, floods, avalanches, landslides and slope failures.

4.Learn the strategies and coping up with natural Hazards.

5.Understand climatology and global environment- coastal, reverine, dessertic , tropical, cold and polar.

6.Get elementary knowledge on Green house effect and global warming

7.Understand Green house effect and global warming;

8.Obtain elementary concept of watershed management and Land reclamation


Credits (Theory and practical classes per week)

Two classes each of 45 minutes for each subject


Master of Sciences (MSc)

Program Outcome (POs)

1. Understand megascopic and microscopic properties of igneous rocks, their IUGS classification and generation of magma.

2. Understand various magmatic processes including partial melting, fractional crystallization etc.

3. Learn the relationship between major igneous rocktypes and suites and their correlation with tectonic setting

4. Understand minerologial phase rule, ACF, AKF, AFM diagrams, various metamorphic facies, isograds and phases of deformation and metamorphic crystallization

5. Understand the concept of sedimentary petrology, sedimentary facies analysis and techniques of identification of sedimentary rocks in hand specimen and thin section.

6. Understand basics of basin analysis and the genesis of various sedimentary rocks and related sedimentary processes.

7. Understand the concept of stress and strain and its relation with various structural features.

8. Understand the classification and mechanisms of formation of folds and faults.

9. Understand the concept of petrofabric analysis and kinematic analysis and the understanding various deformational structures

10. Learn classification of silicates and their major properties along with their geochemical properties

11. Understand the details of optical mineralogy and the process of formation of uniaxial and biaxial interference figures

12. Understand the details of geochemical classification of elements and their properties

13. Learn the process of ore genesis and the origin of pertroleum and coal

14. Learn the method of identification of ores in the field and details of their exploration

15. Understand basics of sequence stratigraphy and the modern techniques used in stratigraphy

16. Understand the boundary problems and the formation of geological time scale along with Earth’s climatic history

17. Understand the theories of origin and evolution of life

18. Understand Paleobiology and the morphology of major invertebrate, vertebrate and microfossils.

19. Learn about the major extinction events and their causes

20. Learn about planetary evolutions and the internal structure of earth giving main emphasis to plate tectonics

21. Understand metallogeny in relation to plate tectonics

22. Learn about the concept of Neotectonics and its implication

23. Understand the use of remote sensing in the field of geology that includes the geomorphological, lihtological and mineral investigations

24. Learn about various types of remote sensing techniques, sensors, data acquisition, storage and utility

25. Get detail knowledge on groundwater hydrology and its implication to the engineering projects

26. Understand about aquifers, their types; hydrological provinces of India and quality of ground water

27. Get brief knowledge on ocean circulation, oceanography and techniques of surface and subsurface sample processing.

28. Learn about the distribution, evolution and application of micropaleontology

29. Understand the techniques of separation of microfossil from the matrix and biozonation charts.

30. Understand and implement the understanding of geology into engineering projects

31. Obtain knowledge on Mass movements and geohazard management and its implication

32. Understand various geomorphic markers and their use in active tectonics

33. Learn the fundamentals of GIS and remote sensing

34. Obtain knowledge on the Himalayan orogen and related tectonic features

35. Learn the use of geological knowledge in geohazard mitigation and engineering projects

36. Learn the technique of Field geology and attain knowledge of mapping and correaltion


Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs)


1.Understand Igneous Petrology in detail

2.Understand Metamorphic Petrology in detail

3.Understand Sedimentology in detail

4.Understand Structural Geology in detail

5.Understand Minerology and Geochemistry in detail

6.Understand Economic Geology in detail

7.Understand Stratigraphy in detail

8.Understand Paleontology in detail

9.Understand Advance Structural Geology in detail

10. Understand Geodynamics in detail

11. Understand Remote Sensing and GIS in detail

12. Understand Groundwater Hydrology in detail

13. Understand Micropaleontology and Oceanography in detail

14. Understand Engineering Geology in detail

15. Understand Tectonic Geomorphology in detail

16. Understand Mineral Exploration and economics in detail

17. Understand Himalayan Geology in detail


Course Outcome (COs)

COs of Igneous Petrology

1.Understand Magma generation in the mantle, their nature and evolution

2.Learn various magmatic processes: Partial melting, fractional crystallization, assimilation, liquid immiscibility

3.Study phase equilibria in binary and ternary silicate systems ( DioCOide-Anorthite, Foresterite- Silica, Leucite-Silica, Albite- Anorthite, Orthoclase-Anorthite, Orthoclase-Albite-Silica, DioCOite-Albite-Anorthite, DioCOide-Foresterite-Silica, Fayalite-Leucite-Silica) in the light of modern experimental works

4.Learn the IUGS classification schemes of igneous rocks

5.Understand Petrognesis and tectonic setting of major igneous rock types and suites: Ultramafic rocks- komatite, lamprophyres, kimberlite, ophiolites, flood basalt, anorthosite, TTG, granitoids, alkaline rocks, carbonatites with special reference to Indian examples.


COs of Metamorphic Petrology

1.Learn about the mineralogical Phase rule of open and closed systems

2.Understand the Nature and types of metamorphic reactions

3.Learn the concept and classification of metamorphic facies; Facies series;

4.Learn graphical representation of minerals in ACF, AKF, AFM and A’F’M’ diagrams

5.Understand the time relation between phases of deformation and metamorphic crystallization

6.Describe each facies of low pressure, medium to high pressure and very high pressure with special reference to characteristics minerals, subdivisions into zones/sub facies, mineral assemblages, metamorphic reactions and pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphism

7.Obtain brief introduction of Ultra high temperature and Ultra high pressure metamorphism

8.Udnerstand Isograds and Reaction Isograds; Schreinmakers rule and construction of Petrogenetic grids

9.Learn about metamorphic differentiation; Anatexis and origin of migmatites; Paired metamorphic belts

10. Understand Gibb’s free energy; Entropy; Enthalpy; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; Geothermobarometry; Pressure-Temperature-Time (P-T-t) paths


Cos of Sedimentology

1.Understand the texture, shape, size, fabric and surface texture

2.Learn the methods of textural analysis, textural parameters and their significance

3.Understand fluid flow mechanics and formation of sedimentary bed forms.

4.Learn the concept of facies and implication of facies in environmental interpretation and basin analysis.

5.Understand diagenesis: physical and chemical processes. Evidences of diagenesis in sandstones, mud rocks and carbonate rocks.

6.Obtain knowledge on the evidences of diagenesis in sandstones, mud rocks and carbonate rocks; evaporates, siliceous, phosphatic and ferruginous rocks.

7.Learn about conglomerates

8.Learn various techniques to understand Petrogenesis of sandstone, problems of greywacke, plate tectonics and sandstone composition

9.Understand argillaceous rocks-composition and classification, dolomites, limestones-their petrographic characteristics and classification


Cos of Structural Geology

1.Understand the Mechanical principles and properties of rocks and their controlling factors.

2.Learn the theory of rock failure; brittle and ductile deformation.

3.Understand the mechanics of folding and buckling.

4.Describe and understand folds geometry and classification; Superimposed folds and their interference patterns.

5.Learn the analytical methods of determining fold style

6.Understand the causes and dynamics of faulting; about normal faults and strike – slip faults; Overthrust and nappe with implications to thrust tectonics; Thin skinned deformation and decollement along with Salt domes and diapers.

7.Learn the concept of balanced cross sections

8.Understand Joints, rock cleavage and foliations; their origin, domain character, relationship with major structures and geological significance.

9.Learn about transposed foliations, linear structures and boudinage; their origin, relationship with major structures and significance; deformation of linear structures; Learn the concept of stress and strain; stress-strain relationship of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; two dimensional strain and stress analyses; types of strain ellipses and their significance.

10. Learn about brittle and ductile shear zones; their geometry, strain pattern, kinematics and significance.

11. Understand the rotation of structural elements.

12. Learn the use of stereographic and equal area projections for representing different types of fabric


Cos of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

1.Learn the structural classification of silicates

2.Study of following group of minerals with reference to chemical and structural formula, classification, atomic structure, chemistry, physical and optical properties, occurrences : Olivine, Garnet, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Mica, Feldspars, Feldspathoids, Silica and Aluminium silicates.

3.Understand the formation of Uniaxial and bi-axial interference figures, Interference colors, Pleochroism and determination of pleochroic scheme,

4.Obtain knowledge on the interference figures and determination of optic sign; Extinction; Uniaxial and Biaxial indicatrix and dispersion in minerals.

5.Learn the use of Petrographical microscope, mica, Gypsum and Quartz plates;

6.Learn the use of Universal stage and their uses in the determination of optical properties of minerals.

7.Understand the composition of Earth and its constituents (Crust, mantle and core)

8.Learn the ionic and coordination number; Rules of ionic substitution, coupled substitution; Distribution coefficient: Capture admission and camouflage,

9.Understand the Geochemical classification of elements; the behaviour of major and trace including rare earth elements during magmatic crystallization.

10. Learn about the near surface geochemical environment: Eh-pH diagram.

11. Understand the Principal of chemical mass balance and rock- cycle; chemical weathering of minerals and rocks.

12. Learn about Radiogenic isotopes in geochronology and petrognesis: Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb isotopic system.


Cos of Palaeontology

1.Understand the theories on origin of life.

2.Learn about Organic evolution-Punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism models. Obtain knowledge on Mass extinctions & their causes

3.Learn the application of fossils in age determination and correlation.

4.Understand the Palaeoecology life habitats and various ecosystems.

5.Learn about paleobiogeography, adaptation and functional morphology; taphonomy and limiting factors.

6.Understand the types and uses of microfossils; their morphology, biostratigraphy and applications of foraminifera, Radiolaria, Calcareous, planktons, Diatoms and Conodonts.

7. Learn the characteristics, origin and evolution of vertebrates along with causes and extinction.


Cos of Stratigraphy

1.Learn the recent development in stratigraphic classification

2.Understand the code of stratigraphic nomenclature.

3.Learn the concept of sequence stratigraphy. Modern methods of stratigraphic correlation.

4.Learn the approaches of paleogeography.

5.Understand Earth’s climatic history.

6.Obtain brief ideas of quantitative, magneto, sesmic ,chemo and event stratigrphy.

7.Understand the relationship of Evolution and biostratigrapy – controlling factor, zonation, time significance, quantitative stratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy ,pedostratigraphy .

8.Understand the evolution of the early crust,lithological,geochemical and stratigraphic characterstics of granite-Greenstone and granulite belts of India and global correlation.Proterozoic formations of Peninsular – Extrapeninsular India.

9.Understand about the Precambrian life and its stratigraphic records in India.

10. Learn about the Boundry problems: Archaen-Proterozoic , Precambrian- Cambrian, Permo-Triassic, Cretaceous –Tertiary, Neogene-Quaternery.

11. Understand the Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphy, fossils, Paleogeography, Paleoclimate, Tectonism and economic deposits in brief.

12. Understand the concept and status scheme of classification.


Cos of Geodynamics

1.Understand the Planetary evolution of the earth and its internal structure

2.Understand the heterogeneity of the earth crust.

3.Understand Major tectonic features of the Oceanic and Continental crust.

4.Learn about Isostacy and epeirogeny, Continental drift-geological and geophysical evidence, mechanics, objections, present status.

5.Learn about the nature of plate margins.

6.Understand gravity and magnetic anomalies and heat flow patterns at Mid-ocean ridges, deep sea trenches, continental shield areas and mountain chains

7.Learn about Palaeomagnetism, magnetostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, mechanics of plate motion and Plate Tectonics

8.Obtain knowledge on Island arcs, oceanic islands, hotspots and plume tectonics.

9.Learn about the Seismismic belts of the earth, seismicity and recurrent seismicity vis-a-vis plate movements.

10. Understand orogeny, geodynamic evolution of Indian cratons and mobile belts.

11. Learn about the structure and origin of the Himalaya

12. Understand metallogeny in relation to plate tectonics.

13. Learn about the Neotectonic movements-concepts and evidence.


Cos of Economic Geology

1.Understand Magmatic, hydrothermal, metamorphic and surface processes of ore formation.

2.Learn the methods of mineral deposit studies including ore microscopy, fluid inclusions and isotopic systematic.

3.Understand about Geological setting, characteristics and genesis of ferrous, base and noble metals.

4.Learn about the origin, migration and entrapment of petroleum.

5.Understand the properties of source and reservoir rocks; Structural, stratigraphic and combination traps

6.Learn about the petroliferous basins of India.

7.Understand the origin of coal deposits, their classification, rank and grading of coal; coal resources of India.

8.Learn about gas hydrates, coal bed methane and nuclear resources.

9.Understand the occurence of mineral resources in the Himalaya.


Cos of Mineral Exploration and Mineral Economics

1.Understand the concept of exploration.

2.Learn about the geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical criteria and methods of surface and sub-surface exploration.

3.Learn about Pitting, trenching, drilling and sampling methods; methods of petroleum and ground water exploration.

4.Learn the technique of estimation of grade and reserve of ores.

5.Learn the principles of mineral beneficiation; communition classification, liberation, concentration, flotation methods, jigging, electromagnetic and magnetic separation, amalgamation, syndication.

6.Learn about the strategic, critical and essential minerals.

7.Understand India’s status in mineral production; National Mineral Policy; Substitution and conservation; Mineral concession rules.

8.Learn about the marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.



1.Define remote sensing and describe and learn about air- and space-based platform

2.Understand types and characteristics of sensors.

3.Learn the concepts of mono-band, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing.

4.Learn the basics of optical, thermal and microwave remote sensing; characteristics of IRS sensors and principles of visual image interpretation

5.Understand the structure of Digital Image and the conceptual aspects of Digital Image Processing.

6.Learn the basic processes of image rectification, enhancement and classification.

7.Learn about components of Geographic Information System (GIS); Raster and vector data formats.

8.Obtain basic knowledge about data acquisition, manipulation, analyses and representation in GIS.

9.Learn the application of remote sensing and GIS in geomorphological investigations, tectonic investigations, lithological mapping, groundwater exploration, mineral exploration, oil & Gas exploration and geohazard management;


Cos ofMicropaleontology and Oceanography

1.Understand the definition and scope of the subject, surface and subsurface sampling methods, sample processing and techniques

2.Learn the history of development of Oceanography.

3.Learn the methods of measuring properties of sea water.

4.Understand the Ocean drilling Programme (ODP) and its major accomplishments, ocean circulation, surface circulation and concept of mixed layers.

5.Learn about Thermocline and Pycnocline, concept of upwelling; El Nino and deep Ocean circulation. Formation of bottom, bottom water, water masses of the world ocean and sea sediments (oozes etc.).

6.Get brief introduction of morphology, geological distribution and applications of Foraminifers, osytracoda, Calcareous Nannofossils, radiolarian, diatoms and conodonts



1.Understand the Origin, occurrence, movement and distribution.

2.Learn about the Hydrological properties of rocks: porosity, permeability, specific yield, specific retention, hydraulic conductivity, transmissibility and storage coefficient.

3.Learn about Aquifer and their types: Confined and unconfined aquifers.

4.Understand Darcy Law, its range and validity.

5.Learn the Ground water quality and chemical characteristics of ground water in relation to various uses domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes.

6.Understand the Ground water recharge- methods and factors controlling recharge.


Cos of Engineering Geology

1.Learn the role of engineering geology in civil engineering projects; engineering properties of rocks and soils

2.Understand the Geological consideration for evaluation of dams and reservoir sites; Reservoir induced seismicity.

3.Obtain knowledge on Dam foundation problems and grouting; geological evaluation of tunnel alignment.

4.Understand about bridges- their types and causes of failure.

5.Learn about the influence of geological conditions on building foundations.

6.Understand about mass movements with special emphases on landslide and causes of hill slope instability and preventive measures.


Cos of Tectonic Geomorphology

1.Understand the definition and scope of tectonic geomorphology

2.Learn the concept of landscape evolution and the form-process relationship in landscape evolution

3.Understand the concept of linear and planar geomorphic markers and active tectonics.

4.Understand various landforms related to active strike-slip faults, normal faults, reverse faults and folds.

5.Understand sudden verses gradual modification in the river systems along with tectonic modification of alluvial and bedrock-channeled rivers: longitudinal profiles, river pattern, sinuosity, drainage pattern and drainage anomalies; effects of base levels.

6.Understand geomorphic indices of active tectonics

7.Learn the technique of morphometric analysis: mountain front sinuosity, hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry, stream length gradient index and valley floor width to valley height ratio

8.Understand the fundamentals of space geodetic technique of measuring active tectonic deformations: Global positioning system (GPS) and Radar interferometry


Cos of Advanced techniques in Structural Geology

1.Principles of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams. Strain markers in naturally deformed rocks and graphical representation of strain. Strain pattern and folding. Measurement of strain in deformed rocks

2.Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints and faults. Tectonites and their type. Concept of petrofabric and symmetry- field and laboratory techniques and graphical solutions. Types of fabric, fabric elements and interpretation on macroscopic to microscopic scale. Use of Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (CPO) and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) in petrofabric; Co3 Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Unconformities and basement-cover relations. structural behaviour of igneous rocks, diapirs and salt domes


Cos of Himalayan Geology

1.Understand Geological terrains of Indian Subcontinent. Proterozoic rocks in Himalaya, their metamorphism and igneous activities. Himalayan province between pan- African and Hercynian Tectonic Upheavals. Gondwana tectonics and pre Himalayan palaeogeograpgy.

2.Understand Cretaceous volcanism and the Himalayan Mesozoic Startigraphy and the tectonic evolution of northern margin of the Indian plate.

3.Understand the Collision of India with Asia and the emergence and evolution of the Himalaya, evolution of Himalayan Foreland basin, quaternary development and Holocene-recent tectonic movements and earthquakes in the Himalaya


Credits (Theory and practical classes per week)

Four classes each of 45 minutes for each subject